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Microsoft Office

Table of Contents

1.0 Windows

2.0 Word

3.0 Excel

4.0 Power Point

5.0 Front Page

6.0 Access

7.0 Visual Basic

8.0 Internet




To learn about Basic components of a computer

Introduction to computer

What Is Computer ?

A computer can be precisely defined as  “an electronic device capable of receiving, storing and possessing the input or data. It provides us the results according to the instructions given in the form of stored program.

The Personal Computer

The most popular form of the computer in use today is the PC or the personal computer. The PC can be used for various applications and, in fact there are millions of PCs already used by individuals and organizations. The PC is small in size but capable enough to handle large tasks. It can perform a diverse range of functions; from keeping track of house hold accounts to keeping records of the stores of large manufacturing company.

Benefits of computers

Computer provides three basic benefits:

1. Speed 2. Accuracy 3. Diligence

Computers work at very high speed and are much faster than humans. The human equivalent of an average computer would be one million mathematicians working 24 hours a day. Computers rarely make mistakes. In fact, most computer errors are caused by human frailties. Unlike humans, computers simply don’t get bored or tired. However, computers cannot take over all activities simply because they are less flexible than humans. They have to be explicitly told what to do. They cannot perform anything outside the defined scope. If an unanticipated situation arises, computers will either produce erroneous results or abandon the tasks altogether. They don’t have the potential to work out an alternative solution.

How does a computer work?

Most activities follow the basic principle of input-process-output.  Consider an automobile assembly line. The raw materials required by an automobile assembling unit would include body, engine parts, tires, and so on.

These materials are forwarded to the assembling unit. This activity constitutes the input part of the cycle. The process is the actual building of the automobile. Therefore, the process acts upon what has been the input and produces the output, which in this case would be the finished automobile.

Like all other activities, a computer system too follows the input- process- output or I-P-O cycle. This can be best illustrated by an example of an airline reservation. A person who wishes to travel by air between Singapore and New York first has to fill in a request slip. This slip contains relevant data, i.e. details of name, age, place of destination etc. The booking clerk keys in the date form the request slip into the computer. The process in this case includes examining the flight number, the date of journey, and the class requested and determining whether seats are available as per the reservation details. The output of this process is some information confirming the booking, if seats are available. Otherwise the computer turning down the request may issue a message.

Components of computer

There are two components of computer

1. Hardware

2. Software


Combination of electrical devices, which make a computer or PC, termed as hardware. There are three categories of hardware.

1. Input devices

2. System unit

3. Output devices

Input devices

The common input devices in a P.C. are:





The keyboard has already been identified as an input device. This is a component that closely resembles as typewriter.


A mouse is a small device that is connected to the system unit by means of a long wire. This is another input device, whose movement causes the corresponding movement of a pointer on the screen.It usually has two or three buttons using which the user can select options from the screen.

Output devices


Now that you are familiar with input devices of the computer, lets take a closer look at an output device. Data that has been processed needs to be displayed to the user. This is done using the Monitor. Monitor is a similar to a T.V. screen and can display both text and graphic images. The display can be either in black and white or color.


The output on the Monitor cannot be stored for latter preferences. For a permanent output, you would require a printer that is also a common output device. Using the printer you can obtain the output on the paper. Printers are capable of printing at very high speeds. The printer commonly used with the P.C is the Dot Matrix printer, Ink Jet Printer and the Laser Jet Printer

System unit

When data is input to a computer, it is processed and an output is produced at the output device. Processing takes place in the system unit. The components of the system unit are involved in the actual processing in the microprocessor. These are the main components in  a computer’s system unit.

Hard disk




CD Rom

Floppy drive

Hard disk

Storage unit

In computer terminology the storage capacity of the PC is measured in terms of bytes, where one byte can store one character. Character here refers to any alphabet number or other symbols. Therefore to store the word COMPUTER 8 bytes would be required. Just as there is a basic unit gram and another unit kilogram to measure weight, there is also byte and kilobyte (KB) to measure storage capacity. One KB is approximately equal to 1024 bytes; therefore, 1 KB store approximately 1000 characters. Another common unit of measurement of storage capacity is the megabyte (MB), which is equal to 1024 KB. Very large storage capacities are measured in terms of gigabytes (GB). One GB is equal to 1024 MB.


A PC is incapable of performing any task with the hardware alone. It requires instructions that determine weather it will function as desired or not. Like data, instructions are also entered via keyboard. In computer terminology, a set of instructions is called a program and one or more programs are called software.

Software used on computers may be of different types. Some important classes of software are:

1. System software

2. Application software

Operating system or system software

Operating system is very important for the working of the P C.

When a user wants to store any data or program, the data or program is stored at location that is known only to the operating system. Therefore, the operating system performs the task of storage management.

Besides storage management, the operating system also performs device management. For instance, when user wants to print information on the printer or display information on the monitor, he /she does not have to bother about the actual transportation of the information of the internal storage to the monitor or to the printer. The operating system takes care of it.

Application software

Software specially suited for a specific application is now available in the market. For example software for billing systems, accounting software or software that enables the creation and storage of documents. Such software is called Application Software since it is designed for the specific application i.e. word processing ,spread sheet etc

Computer languages

All application software packages are written in computer languages. There are various computer languages like C++ , Visual Basic , Java etc.


Logging On To Windows 2000 Professional

After the booting process is over control passes to the logon process. This process connects  you to the windows 2000 server. The logon process window prompts you for the username. Every user on the window 2000 system has a unique logon Id, KNOWN AS account that is created by the system administrator.

When your system boots up it asks you to press Ctrl+Alt+Delete to initiate the logon process.

When you press Ctrl+Alt+Delete the logon process prompts you to give your valid Username, Password and Domain name. After giving all these things you press enter and the system let’s you login.

When you enter the username and password the server checks the table containing the list of all valid users and verifies your username and password. If the username and password that you have supplied exists in the list of users, the server logs you onto the system and allows you to use those resources on the network for which you have permissions.

If your computer is part of the network the logon information screen prompts you to enter the domain name. You need to enter the domain name when you log on, if your computer participates in a domain. But  if your account information is stored locally, i.e. you are not logging on to the domain account, you need to enter the name of computer on the domain prompt.

Once the 2000 server has validated your user name,  password and the domain name, the windows 2000 desktop is displayed. The desktop is the area from where menus can be invoked and objects on the computer or network can be  accessed.

The Windows 2000 User Interface

When you start the Windows 2000 the first time, you see icons displayed on the screen. This initial screen of Windows 2000 is called Desktop.  The desktop contains icons, shortcuts and the taskbar. The user can navigate the user interface using the taskbar or the start menu. The Desktop is shown below in the figure.

My Computer

The My Computer window displays icons representing the various drives like A:, C:, etc and also recource icons like printers dial up networking and control panel. The printer icon represents the collection of printers installed in the system. It also lets the user to install new printer.

Every window has three buttons on the upper right corner that can be used to minimize, maximize, restore and close the window. In the maximized window, the maximize button is replaced by the restore button. The following figure displays the My Computer window.

My Network Places

My Network Places is used to browse through the computers that are a part of your network. You can connect to another computer on your network by clicking on the My Network Places icon on the desktop and double clicking on the name of the computer you want to connect to.

Recycle bin

Windows stores deleted files in recycle bin, which is located on the desktop. You can use the recycle bin to retrieve files that you have accidentally deleted or empty the recycle bin to create more disk space.

Task bar

The task bar is a horizontal bar that appears at the bottom of the

Windows 2000 desktop. By the start button appears on the left end of the task bar. The buttons for all applications that are running appear on the Taskbar. The current window is displayed as a pressed button; all other application buttons are displayed as raised buttons. Clicking on a button for an inactive application activates the application and displays its window as the current window. The Taskbar, thus, makes it easier to switch between running applications.

Start Menu

The Start Menu is a menu that appears when you click the start button located located at the left end of the Taskbar. Start Menu is integral to the clean look of the Windows NT desktop because it helps, the Run commands, a list of programs and a list of recently accessed document available to you, to execute with a single click. From the Start Menu, you can customize the look and feel of Windows, find files and folders and shut down your computer. For some items, a submenu opens to the side of the items to display the list of choice.

Launching an Application

To start an application, select the programs option and click on the program application you want to execute. The program option displays a submenu with the list of sub options as displayed in the figure

The programs option usually displays Accessories startup, commands prompt and windows explorer as a part of its submenu.

The Accessories sub options includes games multimedia system tools calculator, calendar paint and word pad.

Run option

This option is used to launch various applications. Alternatively application can also be launched through the run option of the start menu. The user needs to specify the name of the executable file and the application is launched.

Opening Documents

You can start the recently used documents by clicking the start menu and pointing to the documents menu item. Click on the document to open it.

Changing your Computer Settings

The computer settings can be changed by clicking the start button and selecting the settings option. The settings option displays a submenu with a number of options like   Control panel, Taskbar and Printer options. Control Panel is a program that comes with Windows 2000 and enables you to change settings for the network, keyboard, and printer and also switch between different international character sets, time and date displays and numeric formats.

Getting help

To read the details of all the features and to find out several other features of the Windows 2000, select the help option from the start menu and choose the introducing windows 2000 option. The following figure shows the Help window that gives a detailed account of the features of Windows 2000.

Select the feature on which information is needed. Windows 2000 displays a window providing more information on that particular feature.

Shutting Down your Computer

The windows 2000 cannot be simply switched off. The shut down process must be invoked if you need to restart your computer or shut down the system.

To shut down the system click the start button and select the shut down option. A dialogue box appears as shown below:

Select an option from the drop down list and then click OK button. Windows 2000 is shut down, restarted or user is given the option to logon as different user.

Customizing the User Interface

Windows 2000 allows you to customize the user interface, that is the desktop appearance, the fonts and the color settings of the display to suit your taste and requirements.

The interface can be customized through the Control Panel. You can access the Control Panel through the start menu by selecting Settings option and the control panel. Alternatively you can double click on My Computer icon and then double click the control panel icon.

The control panel presents you with the various settings of the system that you can customize. For example you can change the display fonts or the date and time settings of your computer.

Customizing the display

This option allows you to apply a background to the desktop, change the appearance of the windows, apply a screen saver and other display settings.

Applying a back ground

If you spend a lot of time on your computer, you want to look it pleasant. You can achieve this by applying the wallpaper to your desktop background. Wallpaper is typically a bit map image or a scanned picture. To apply a background, double click the display icon in the control panel. Alternatively you can right click on the desktop and select properties to go to the display properties dialogue box. Select the background tab in the display properties dialogue box, Windows 2000 displays the available wallpapers for you to select from. If you want to apply wallpaper, which is not listed by windows, you can select it by selecting the browse button and locating the image file your self. The following figure displays the background tab of the display properties dialogue box.

You can decide the way you want to set the picture on the desktop by either selecting the tile or center option. Tile displays the picture all over your desktop screen and center creates a window of the picture and centers it on the desktop. Selecting  Apply button or the OK button finishes the task.

Setting a screen saver

A screen saver is an animated graphics program that runs on your screen if you are not working on your computer. Thus, if you leave your workplace for a few minutes,

the screen saver executes and displays animated graphics on your computer.  If your computer has a sound card the screen may produce sound too.

To set a screen saver for your computer, select the screen saver tab from the display properties window. Windows 2000 displays a list of screen savers available on your computer. You can select a screen saver that you like and apply it. You can even change the settings of the screen saver, such as number of colors, rotation speed etc The screen saver tab is shown below

You can also assign a password to the screen saver. The password option requires you to supply the password before the screen clears and returns to the active application. This facility ensures that no one tampers with your computer if you are away for some time

Appearance of Windows

You can change the appearance of various windows and the system menu bars by selecting the appearance tab from the display properties dialogue box. You can change the size and colors of system text and windows messages in this tab. This tab is shown below in the figure

Some of the appearances that you can change through this tab are:

Color of active and inactive window title bars

Background colors

Size and colors of text

Windows will change settings to those specified when you select Apply or OK button.

Changing the Display Setting

You can change the color setting of your display by selecting the settings tab from display properties dialog box. Window 2000 will change the color set of your computer, if your computer supports it.

Setting Date And Time

You can change the date and time settings of your computer by double clicking the date and time icon in the control panel. In the date and time tab , you can set the current year, month, date and time. In the time zone tab, you can select the time zone that your city lies in. The two tabs are shown below:


Working with Windows Explorer

Managing files and folders

Working with Recycle bin

Windows 2000 Explorer

The Windows 2000 Explorer is a tool to browse through the entire system, including the network drives. You can invoke the Windows 2000 explorer through the start menu or by right clicking the start button and clicking on explore option from the context menu.

The explorer displays the contents of active drive and folders.

File operations using Windows 2000 Explorer

In order to view the contents of a folder double click the icon of that folder in the right window or if you are working in the left window pane then simply clicking the folder will display its contents in the right window. Thus, the local drives as well as the network drives can be explored. The Windows 2000 explorer allows you to perform file/ folder related operations such as creating, renaming, moving, deleting and copying files and folders.

Creating a folder

Select the location where you want to create a new folder.

Open the File menu and select the New option. Windows 2000 displays a menu that contains options for creating new folders and different types of files. Select the folder option.

Windows 2000 displays a new folder icon.

Type the name of the folder and press Enter.

Creating a file

Folders are special objects that contain related folders and files. If you want to create a file, the sequence of steps to be followed is the same as that for creating the folder.

Select the location where you want to create the file.

Select the New option from the File menu.

Windows 2000 displays a list of file types. Select the type of file you want to create. For example to create a document select the Microsoft word document option.

On selecting any of these options, Windows 2000 creates a blank file for you to work on.

A folder or a file can also be created on the Windows 2000 desktop. On the Desktop right click anywhere. Windows displays a shortcut menu from which you can select the new option.The submenu displayed on selecting the New option displays the different types of application files that you can create. The context menu you see when you right click the desktop is shown below:

Copy a file or folder

Open windows explorer.

Select the drive or folder you want to work with.

Select the file(s) or folder(s) you want to copy or move.

On the Edit menu, click Copy to copy the selected item(s).

Open the folder or drive where you want to copy the item(s).

On the Edit menu, click Paste.

Move a file or folder

Open windows explorer.

Select the file(s) or folder(s) you want to move.

On the Edit menu, click Cut.

Select the folder or drive where you want to place the file(s) or folder(s).

On the Edit menu, click Paste

Changing the name of a file or folder

Open windows explorer.

Select the file or folder you want to rename.

On the File menu, click Rename.

Type the new name, and then press ENTER

Deleting a file or folder

Open windows explorer.

Select the file or folder you want to delete.

On the File menu, click Delete.

Recycle bin

When you delete a file or folder it is removed from the folder where it used to be. The deleted files and folders are moved to a storage area, known as the Recycle bin. You see the recycle bin as an icon on your desktop.

Windows 2000 moves all the deleted files and folders into the recycle bin as a precautionary measure. In case a file is deleted accidentally, you can double click the icon of recycle bin on desktop and restore the files back to their original location by selecting the Restore option from the File menu, however if the files have to be deleted they should be deleted from the Recycle Bin. The following figure shows the Recycle bin window and the options the File menu provides for managing the files in the Recycle Bin.

Mapping a Network Drive

The built in support for networking provided by Windows 2000 server is one of the main features of windows 2000. You can access and perform operations on network resources in the same way as you do on the objects on your own computer. One of the ways with which it is possible is by mapping a network drive on your computer. Mapping is defined as assigning a drive letter to a drive or recource located on the network. This allows you to access that drive by the drive letter that you have mapped it to. The drive letter A:, B: and C: are reserved by Windows 2000 for the local drives, that is, drives connected to your computer  Thus, you can assign any available drive letters from D to Z to various folders and resources located on the network.

You can map a network drive by navigating to the appropriate folder through the Network Places icon and then selecting it.

Invoke the File menu and select the option Map Network Drive. A dialogue box is displayed (as shown below), which provides you the drop down list of drive letters you can assign to the network folder that you have selected. If you have permission to access the network folder Windows 2000 folder maps the folder as network drive for you automatically.

After the mapping is done you can reference the network resource by the mapped drive letter.


What is Microsoft Word?

What can be done with Microsoft Word?

Word screen orientation

How to enter and work with text?

Introduction to Microsoft Word

With Word, you can create just about any kind of document you want and publish it electronically on paper. Word's key capabilities can be divided into a handful of categories.

Text Editing

You can enter text by typing with your keyboard, and you can also insert selections of text or whole files into a document. Word has many features that make correcting, editing, and changing your text as easy as possible. For example, AutoText completes words or phrases that you use frequently whenever you type just the first few letters. AutoCorrect fixes common typing, spelling, and grammatical mistakes automatically so you don't have to bother with them.

Text Formatting

You can set the spacing, alignment, or indentations of text, and you can also choose the font, font size, and style of type used to display it. You can define styles that contain several text format settings and apply them all at once, or use themes to give Web pages a coordinated look with a customized set of styles, graphics, and a background. You can arrange text in tables, add headers and footers, position footnotes and endnotes, and add captions or text boxes to graphics or tables.


Word has a built-in set of tools you can use to create shapes, lines, boxes, ovals, captions, and other simple graphics. You can also select from dozens of predefined shapes or clip art images and insert these into documents. You can import graphics from most other Microsoft Windows applications into a Word document, and you can use Word's Photo Editor to view and modify digital photographs and other electronic images.

Desktop Publishing

Word has special publishing tools you can use to arrange text and graphics on a page for just about any publishing project, from signs to newsletters to books and magazines. For example, you can lay text out in multiple columns, add graphics, wrap text around display quotations or graphics, make alternating headers and footers (for facing-pages layouts), create indexes, cross-references, and tables of contents. Word includes a number of predesigned templates for different publication formats, and you can easily modify them for your own uses (or create your own).

Data Management and Automation

Word has a built-in mail merge feature that pulls data from a database file and creates form letters or mailing labels. The same basic capability makes it possible for you to include the contents of any database field anywhere in a document, and you can set Word to update fields automatically when you print. You can also create macros to automate procedures, so you can complete several tasks with just a couple of keystrokes; or create entire programs in Microsoft Visual Basic for Applications that can run automatically when Word is started.

Web Publishing

A newly enhanced suite of Web publishing tools in Word 2000 makes it easy to publish your Word documents on the Web with exactly the formatting you want. You can use Word to create complex Web pages that include forms, tables, Microsoft Excel worksheets, graphics, video clips, sounds, animations, and other components. A new Script Editor even allows you to create and include HTML scripts in your Web pages. You can access Web-based resources from within Word and you can include hypertext links in any document.


Document creation is a team effort in many companies, and Word includes several features that make it easier to manage the process. You can add text or spoken comments, keep track of different versions and revisions, and automatically route a document to a group of reviewers. You can also add reviewer comments to a Web page, or schedule conferences with Microsoft NetMeeting.

Working in the Document Window

The document window can change considerably as you work, but the basic controls and features are always the same whenever you have a document open. When you open Word without selecting a particular document to open, Word automatically opens a new document as shown in Figure

Setting up your Screen

The Title Bar (1)

The Title bar at the top of the screen identifies the program as well as the document name. You might have several different Microsoft Word documents open at once, but the title bar tells you which document you're viewing. You use the application control menu or the window control buttons to close or resize the window.

The Menu Bar(2)

The Menu bar contains the menus and commands you'll use to work with Word.

When you have only one document open, the Close button appears at the right end of the menu bar—you can click it to close the document window without exiting Word.


Toolbars contain buttons and menus that you can use to select common commands. Word has nearly two dozen different toolbars that you can display, but you'll typically display only two or three of them at a time. When you first open Word, for example,

the Standard and Formatting toolbars are "docked" beneath the Menu bar .

Standard toolbar (3)

Displays buttons for accessing common features and commands, such as saving, opening and printing file.

Formatting toolbar (4)

Displays buttons for accessing common formatting features and commands, such as bold italic underline etc.

Hiding and Displaying Toolbars

When you first start Word, you'll see the Standard and Formatting toolbars in the same row at the top of your screen, but there are many more toolbars than that. Word has nearly two dozen different toolbars you can display or hide at any time.

There are two quick ways to display or hide a toolbar:

Choose Toolbars from the View menu and then choose the toolbar name from the submenu.

Right-click any toolbar and choose the toolbar name from the shortcut menu.

Expanding a Toolbar

Usually, there isn't enough room to display all of the buttons on a toolbar. To see more of the buttons, click the More Buttons button as shown below. You'll see a palette of other buttons, and you can click them to use them.

Moving, Resizing, or Floating a Toolbar

If you don't like the position of a toolbar or you want to display more of its buttons at all times, you can move or resize the toolbar or make it float by dragging the Move handle at the toolbar's left edge.

Move handle

The Ruler(5)

The horizontal ruler measures the width of the document page; it displays information such as margins, tabs stops, and indents.

Screen Tip (6)

Displays the name of the element on which the mouse pointer is resting.

Scroll Bars (7)

Scroll bars are one of the main ways to navigate through a document. The vertical scroll bar at the right moves you up and down through a document.

View buttons (8)

Used to change to one of four available document views. These options are also available in the view menu.

Word lets you view documents in four different ways.

The Web Layout and Print Layout views show how a document will look when printed or when viewed on the Web. You can also use these two views to insert graphics, text boxes, images, sounds, video, and text to create professional- looking publications and Web pages. Print Layout view is the default view in Word.

Normal view lets you focus on the text in your document.

Outline view shows the document as an outline so you can easily reorganize it.

In addition, you can zoom (magnify or reduce) a document's contents to make it easier to read or to fit more of the document onto your screen.

The Status Bar (9)

The status bar below the horizontal scroll bar shows you information about the document you're viewing and your location within it. It contains buttons that activate various text entry modes and buttons that turn on macro recording or document change tracking. There is also a book icon that starts up Word's spelling and grammar checker.

Mode buttons (10)

Used to change the way Word operates to make creating and editing document easier.

The Insertion Point and Pointer

The insertion point is a blinking vertical line at the upper left corner of a new document.. The mouse pointer is displayed as an I-beam when it's inside the document window. When you want to move the insertion point to any other place in your document's text, move the pointer to the new location and click.

To begin entering text, just start typing. Text always appears at the insertion point's location.

Entering Text

The blinking insertion point in your document shows you where text will appear when you enter it. You can move the insertion point by pointing and clicking to insert text wherever you like

Insert Mode vs. Overtype Mode

By default, Word enters text in Insert mode so that when you add a word in the middle of a line of text, the text to the right of the new word moves ahead. However, you can also operate Word in Overtype mode, so that what you type replaces any text that's in the way rather than pushing it to the right.

To set Overtype mode, double-click the shaded OVR button in the status bar, or

Choose Options from the Tools menu, click the Edit tab, and then select the Overtype Mode check box.

Moving around in a Document

As you fill a document with text or graphics, you'll want to move around the document and view different parts of your creation. The document window's scroll bars are the most obvious way to navigate through a document, but you can also use the keyboard, some special navigation buttons, and the Go To command.


Scroll bars and buttons are the most common way to move through a document. Each scroll bar has a scroll box and arrow buttons at each end to scroll.

Scrolling with the Mouse

You can use the mouse in several ways to scroll with a scroll bar, depending on how far you want to move in your document.

To scroll in small increments, click the scroll button at either end of the scroll bar. To scroll quickly, hold down the mouse button as you click the scroll button.

To scroll up or down one screen at a time, click anywhere in the vertical scroll bar above or below the scroll box.

To scroll proportionally through a document, drag the scroll box up or down. For example, to scroll to the middle of a document, drag the scroll box to the middle of the scroll bar. As you drag the scroll box, a label appears and reports the current page number:

Navigating with the Keyboard

When you use the keyboard to navigate, you scroll through the document and move the insertion point at the same time. Following shows keys and key combinations you can use.

TABLE. Keyboard Navigation Shortcuts

Press These Keys... To Jump Here...

Up or Down arrow Up or down one line

Left or Right arrow Left or right one character

Ctrl+Left Arrow or Ctrl+Right Arrow Left or right one word

Home or End The beginning or end of the current line

Ctrl+Home or Ctrl+End The beginning or end of the document

Page Up or Page Down Up or down one screen

Ctrl+Page Up or Ctrl+Page Down Up or down one document page

Shift+F5 The last place you edited your document

Selecting Text

After you enter text in your document, you might want to edit it or change its formatting. Either way, the first step is to select the text you want to change. By selecting, you tell Word which text you want to work on. There are several ways to select text.

Selecting by Dragging

Pointing and dragging is the most intuitive way to select text. You can select anything from a single character to your entire document this way.

Point to the space to the left of the word from where you want to start selection.

Hold down the mouse button, drag across the line to the space to the right of the text where you want to end selection and then release the mouse button. A dark selection highlight appears as you drag, and it remains to show the area that you selected after you release the mouse button as shown below. You can always tell which text is selected by looking for this selection highlight.

Selecting by Clicking

Word offers some mouse-click shortcuts that help you select specific text areas more quickly. You can click inside your document's text or select whole lines, paragraphs, or the document by clicking in the left margin. Following Table shows how to select different parts of text by clicking.

Table . Options for Selecting Text with Mouse Clicks

To Select This Text... Click This...

One word Double-click a word

One sentence Press the Ctrl key and click in the sentence

One paragraph Triple-click in the paragraph

One line Click next to the line in the left margin

The entire document Triple-click in the left margin or hold down the Ctrl key and click in the left margin

You can also combine clicking and dragging to speed up your selections. For example, click in the left margin to select a line, hold down the mouse button, and drag up or down to select other lines.

Selecting with the Keyboard

If you prefer not to use the mouse, Word has keyboard alternatives for all of its commands, including selecting. Refer to the following table to see other keyboard navigation shortcuts. To select with the keyboard:

Use the arrow keys to move the pointer to the beginning of the selection.

Hold down the Shift key while using the arrow keys to move the pointer to the end of the selection.

Release the Shift key.

Deleting Text

You can use either the Backspace or Delete key to delete text

To delete text immediately to the left of the insertion point, press the Backspace key. The insertion point will back up and remove text as it goes.

To delete several words, lines, or paragraphs, select the text and then press the Backspace or Delete key.

Cut, Copy, and Paste Text

With Cut, Copy, and Paste you can move text or graphics large distances between documents or make copies of text rather than moving the original copy.

Basic Cutting, Copying, and Pasting

1. To cut text or a graphic, select the text or graphic in your document

2. Choose Cut from the Edit menu, press Ctrl+X, or click the Cut button  on the Standard toolbar.

3. The text or graphic disappears from your document and is placed on the Clipboard.

4. To paste text or graphics, move the insertion point to the place where you want the pasted item to appear, and then choose Paste from the Edit menu, press Ctrl+V, or click the Paste button on the Standard toolbar.

5. To copy text or a graphic,

6. Select the text or graphic in your document

7. Choose Copy from the Edit menu, press Ctrl+C, or click the xCopy button  on the Standard toolbar. The selected text or graphic remains in your document, but a copy is placed on the Clipboard.

8. To paste text or graphics, move the insertion point to the place where you want the pasted item to appear, and then choose Paste from the Edit menu, press Ctrl+V, or click the Paste button on the Standard toolbar.

Using Word's New Clipboard

When you cut, copy, or paste text in your documents, Word uses a special area of memory called the Clipboard. In older versions of Word, the Clipboard stored only one cut or copied item at a time, so any new item you cut or copied would replace its previous contents. In Microsoft Word 2000, the Clipboard can store up to 12 cut or copied items, and there's a handy toolbar for selecting, pasting, or clearing its contents.

When you add more than one item to the Clipboard, the Clipboard toolbar opens, and you see buttons for each of the copied items, as shown below:

You can use the toolbar to copy new items, paste any or all of the items stored on the Clipboard, or erase the Clipboard. The button style used for each item stored on the Clipboard shows whether it's text or a graphic.

Items are added to the Clipboard in the order you cut or copy them, and you can paste any or all of them from there.

To see the contents of an item, point to the button and wait for the ScreenTip to appear.

To paste an item, move the insertion point to the location where you want the text to appear and click the item's button on the Clipboard toolbar.

To paste all items on the Clipboard in the order in which they were copied, click the Paste All button.

To clear the Clipboard, click the Clear Clipboard button.

To put the Clipboard toolbar away, click the Close button on the right edge of its title bar.


How to create new documents?

How to save documents?

How to close documents?

How to open an existing document?

Managing Documents in Word

Creating New Documents

There are two ways to create new documents. If you press Ctrl+N, you'll create a new document using Word's default Blank Document template.

If you want to choose the type of new document, follow these steps:

1. Choose New from the File menu to display the New dialog box as shown in Figure. Once inside the New dialog box, you'll see the following:

2. Select a document template or wizard. Click the tabs to see dozens of predesigned templates and wizards you can use. The Document type is selected automatically to create a new Word document. To create a new template instead, click the Template button.

3. Click the OK button. The new document appears on your screen.

Choosing a Document Template

Every new document you create is based on a template, and the Blank Document template on the General tab is selected by default. This template creates a standard blank document, the same as you see when you start Word.

If you prefer, you can use one of Word's other predesigned document templates to begin a new document. Click one of the tabs in the New dialog box to see a variety of templates containing predesigned formats and content for letters, faxes, memos, reports, and other types of documents. Try opening each of them to see what they have to offer.

Choosing the Document Type

By default, Word creates a new document. If you would prefer to create a new template, click the Template button in the Create New area.

When you create a new document, Word will offer to save it in Word's standard file type (.doc). When you create a new template, Word will offer to save it in the Templates folder inside the Windows\Application Data\Microsoft folder with the template file type (.dot).

Changing the View

Initially, you'll see templates displayed as large icons in the New dialog box. However, you can click one of the other view buttons as shown in Figure 7-1 to view templates in other ways.

Using Document Wizards

Rather than opening a document template, you can use one of the document wizards in Word. Wizards automatically create a formatted document based on your answers to a series of questions. The icons for wizards have a magic wand in them.

When you open a wizard, you're asked a series of questions. After you answer each question by typing information or choosing an option, click the Next button. When the wizard is finished, click the Finish or Done button, and Word will create the document according to your specifications.

To cancel a wizard before you finish, click the Cancel button or the Close box on the wizard's dialog box.

Saving Documents

Saving a document is the most important task you can perform in Word, because if you don't save your documents, all the work you have done will vanish.

Saving a Document for the First Time

The procedure for saving a new document is simple:

1. Choose Save from the File menu or press Ctrl+S. You'll see the Save As Dialogue  box as shown below:

2. Type a name for the new file in the File Name box. (Word suggests the text from the first paragraph in the document, which is handy if your first paragraph is also the document's title.)

3. Select a location for the file with the Save In list. The main area (or file list) shows all of the files at the current location. The Save In list box above the file list shows the name of current location, and if you like you can use the list box to navigate to another location.

4. Click the arrow button next to the Save As Type box to display the Save As Type list and choose a file type, if necessary. (Word automatically selects the Word Document type in this example because the document being saved is a standard document, rather than a template or another file type.)

5. Click Save or press Enter to save the file.

Saving an Existing Document

When you save an existing document, Word already knows the document's name and location, and you can save it without using the Save As dialog box. Just press Ctrl+S or choose Save from the File menu. Word saves the changes without displaying the Save As dialog box.

Saving with a Different Name, File Type, or Location

Sometimes you'll want to save an existing file under a different name or save it as a different file type or in a different location. For example, you may want to save a copy of your document as a WordPerfect file so you can share it with someone who uses that program, or save a copy of your file to a network server.

To save a file with a different name, file type, or location, use the Save As command:

1. Choose Save As from the File menu or press F12. Word displays the Save As dialog box as shown in Figure 7-2, except that the file's current name and location are showing.

2. Choose a different file type, location, or enter a different name for the file.

3. Press Enter or click the Save button.

Replacing an Existing File

Sometimes you'll want to completely replace an existing file. For example, you may have decided to rewrite the document from scratch in a new document, and now you want to save the new document with the same name, type, and location as the existing one. When you click the Save button or press Enter to save the file, Word asks you to confirm that you want to replace the current version of the file as shown below:

Click Yes to the prompt to replace the existing file.

Securing a File with a Password

If you want to prevent unauthorized users from viewing a file, you can set a password for it:

1. Choose Save As from the File menu and name the file, if necessary.

2. Click the Tools button and choose General Options from the menu that appears. You'll see the Save Options dialog box, like the one shown below:

3. In the File Sharing Options area at the bottom of the dialog box, you can enter one or two passwords:

4. When you enter a password in the Password To Open box, you make it necessary to have a password in order to open the file.

5. When you enter a password in the Password To Modify box, you prevent anyone without a password from modifying the file. Anyone, however, can open the file as a Read Only document.

6. If you enter a password in both of the password boxes, the user will need one password to open the file and a second password to open a modifiable version of the file.

7. If you check the Read-Only Recommended check box, Word will suggest, but not require, that the file be opened as a Read Only document.

8. Enter one or two passwords to protect the file.

9. Click OK to close the Save Options dialog box.

10. Retype one or both passwords in the Confirm box and click OK.

11. Click Save to save the file with those passwords.

Opening an Existing Document

If an Office application isn't running, the fastest method is to click Open Office Document on the Start menu, or to click the Open Office Document button on the Office Shortcut Bar. If you're working in an Office application, your best bet is to choose Open from the File menu, or to click the Open button on the Standard toolbar.

The Open dialog box shown below displays the files and folders in the last folder you used in your application. (The last folder is often called the current folder, because that's the place Office puts your files by default.) The name of the current folder is displayed in the Look In box at the top of the dialog box, and the files and folders located in the current folder are displayed below in a list box. Office documents are identified by a tiny application icon next to the filename, and folders are identified by a folder icon. To open a document file displayed in the list box, just double-click the filename, and it will appear ready for work in your Office application.

Close a document

On the File menu, click Close.

To close all open documents without exiting the program, hold down SHIFT and click Close All on the File menu.


How to format a document by applying

o Character formatting

o Paragraph formatting

Applying Borders and shading

Creating newspaper columns

Using dropcap

Using bullets and numbering

Applying Character Formatting

Using the Font Dialogue Box

The following are the general steps for directly applying character formatting:

Select the text, or to apply the formatting to the text you're about to type, place the insertion point at the position where you want your new text to appear.

Open the Font dialog box by choosing Font from the Format menu, and select the formatting you want. Alternatively, you can apply certain character formatting by pressing a shortcut key or by using the Formatting toolbar.

If you didn't select characters in step 1, begin typing. The character formatting will be applied to all characters you type

The following table gives complete information about the fields you can set in the three tabs of the Font dialogue box.

Character Formatting Option Description


Font The general type of the characters: Times New Roman, Arial, Courier New, and so on.

Font Style The basic look of the characters: Regular, Italic, Bold, or Bold Italic.

Size The height of the characters, measured in points (1 point = inch).

Underline Character underlining, which can be single, double, dotted, dashed, words only (which skips spaces), or in one of many other styles.

Underline Color The color of the underlining, if applied to the text. You can select a standard color, create a custom color, or choose Automatic .

Color The color of characters on a monitor or color printer. You can select a standard color, create a custom color, or choose Automatic .

Effects Character enhancements: Strikethrough, Double Strikethrough, Superscript, Subscript, Shadow, Outline, Emboss, Engrave, Small Caps, All Caps, and Hidden.


Scale Amount by which characters are increased or decreased in width (expressed as a percent of normal character width).

Spacing Amount added to or subtracted from intercharacter spacing to produce expanded or condensed text.

Position Amount by which characters are raised or lowered.

Kerning For Fonts Moving certain character pairs (for example, A and W) closer together.


Animation A visual special effect displayed by text, such as blinking, shimmering, sparkling, and so on. Intended for regular Word documents that will be read online. Text animation, of course, won't print. And if it's applied to a Web-page document, it won't be displayed by popular browsers (such as Microsoft Internet Explorer 5).

Using Shortcut Keys to Apply Character Formatting

You can also use the shortcut keys listed in Table below to apply character formatting to the selected text.

Character Formatting Shortcut Keys

Character Formatting Option Shortcut Key

Bold Ctrl+B

Italic Ctrl+I

Underline Ctrl+U

Double Underline Ctrl+Shift+D

Words Only Underline Ctrl+Shift+W

Subscript (P1) Ctrl+=

Superscript (1st) Ctrl+Shift+=

Hidden Ctrl+Shift+H


ALL CAPS Ctrl+Shift+A

Increase font size to next size in Font Size list Ctrl+Shift+period

Decrease font size to next size in Font Size list Ctrl+Shift+comma

Increase font size by exactly 1 point Ctrl+]

Decrease font size by exactly 1 point Ctrl+[


Using the Formatting Toolbar to Apply Character Formatting

A way to apply several of the character formats is to use the Formatting toolbar:


When the formatting is currently assigned to all characters in the selection, the button will be selected (that is, it will appear pressed in).

Applying Paragraph Formatting

Paragraph formatting affects the appearance of entire paragraphs.

The following are the basic steps for directly applying paragraph formatting:

To format a single paragraph, place the insertion point anywhere within the paragraph, or select all or part of the paragraph. To format several adjoining paragraphs, select at least a portion of each of the paragraphs.

Open the Paragraph dialog box by choosing Paragraph from the Format menu, and then select the desired formatting. Alternatively, you can apply certain paragraph formatting by pressing a shortcut key combination or by using the Formatting toolbar or the ruler.

To remove directly applied paragraph formatting and restore the paragraph formatting that is specified by the paragraph's style, select the paragraph or paragraphs as described in step 1, and then press Ctrl+Q.

Using the Paragraph formatting Dialog Box

The following table gives complete information about the fields you can set in the three tabs of the Paragraph formatting dialogue box.

Paragraph Formatting Option Description

Indents And Spacing

Alignment Justification of the paragraph text: Left; Right; Centered & Justified

Indentation Horizontal position of the paragraph text relative to document margins.

Spacing Before Additional space inserted above the paragraph.

Spacing After Additional space inserted below the paragraph.

Line Spacing Height of each line of text in the paragraph—for example, single or double spacing, or an exact line height.

Line And Page Breaks

Widow/Orphan Control Prevents printing the last line of the paragraph by itself at the top of a new page (a widow), or printing the first line by itself at the bottom of a page (an orphan).

Keep Lines Together All lines in the paragraph will be printed on the same page— that is, Word will not insert a page break within the paragraph.

Keep With Next Prevents Word from inserting a page break between the paragraph and the next paragraph.

Page Break Before The paragraph is printed at the top of a new page.

Suppress Line Numbers If you apply line numbering to the document, the paragraph is excluded from numbering.

Don't Hyphenate If you hyphenate the document, the paragraph is excluded from hyphenation

Using Shortcut Keys to Apply Paragraph Formatting

You can use the shortcut keys listed in the following Table to quickly apply paragraph formatting to the selected paragraph or paragraphs.

Shortcut Keys for Paragraph Formatting

Paragraph Formatting Action Shortcut Key Comment

Increase left paragraph indent Ctrl+M Indent is moved to the next tab stop.

Decrease left paragraph indent Ctrl+Shift+M Indent is moved to previous tab stop; cannot be used to create a negative left indent.

Increase hanging indent Ctrl+T All paragraph lines are indented except the first line. Each time you press the key combination, the hanging indent is moved right to the next tab stop.

Decrease hanging indent Ctrl+Shift+T Hanging indent is moved left to the previous tab stop.

Add or remove 12 points of extra space above paragraph Ctrl+0 (zero at top of keyboard, not on numeric keypad) Toggles on or off.

Create single spacing Ctrl+1 (1 at top of keyboard, not on numeric keypad) Same as Single option in the Paragraph dialog box.

Create 1.5 spacing Ctrl+5 (5 at top of keyboard, not on numeric keypad) Same as 1.5 Lines option in the Paragraph dialog box.

Create double spacing Ctrl+2 (2 at top of keyboard, not on numeric keypad) Same as Double option in the Paragraph dialog box.

Left-align paragraph Ctrl+L Text aligned with left indent.

Right-align paragraph Ctrl+R Text aligned with right indent.

Center paragraph Ctrl+E Text centered between left and right indents.

Justify paragraph Ctrl+J Text aligned with both left and right indents. (Word adjusts the character spacing as necessary.)

Using the Formatting Toolbar and Ruler to Apply Paragraph Formatting

You can also use the Formatting toolbar and the ruler to apply paragraph formatting.

You can click the following buttons on the Formatting toolbar to apply paragraph formats:

(The Decrease Indent and Increase Indent buttons affect the left paragraph indent.)

You can use the ruler to set paragraph indents, as follows:

Applying borders and shading

To apply borders and shading to characters, paragraphs, tables or pages of your document, you can either use the tables and borders toolbar or the borders and shading dialog box. To apply borders to pages you must use the borders and shading dialog box:

1. Do one of the following:

a. To add borders to a paragraph, click anywhere in the paragraph.

b. To add borders only to specific text, select the text.

2. On the Format menu, click Borders and Shading, and then click the Borders tab.

3. Select the options you want, and make sure the correct option Paragraph or Text is selected under Apply to.

4. To specify that only particular sides get borders, click Custom under Setting. Under Preview, click the diagram's sides, or use the buttons to apply and remove borders.

5. To specify the exact position of the border relative to the text, click Paragraph under Apply to, click Options, and then select the options you want.

Adding Page Borders

To give your document a polished or decorative look you can apply borders to pages in your document. You can add page borders to the entire document or to part of the document.  Borders will be visible in Print Layout view, in print preview, and of course on the printed pages.

Applying Shading

1. Open the borders and shading dialog box, and click the shading tab.

2. Select a background shading color in the fill area. To pick standard color click one of the colors in the palette. To choose a different standard color or to create a custom one. Click the more colors button, and then make your choice in the colors dialog box. And when the example shading shown in the preview area has the look you want, click the OK button.

Creating Columns

Using the Column button

In order to convert your document text into a number of columns follow these steps:

1. Switch to print layout view.

2. To format the entire document in columns, click Select All on the Edit menu.

3. To format part of the document in columns, select the text.

4. To format existing section in columns, click in a section or select multiple sections.

5. On the Standard toll bar, click Columns button  .

6. Drag to select the number of columns you want.

7. If you want to adjust the column widths and spacing, drag the column markers on the horizontal ruler.

Using Columns Dialogue box

You can also create Columns by using the columns dialogue box . For this purpose

1. Click the Columns option from the FORMAT menu.

2. Make the appropriate setting regarding the number of columns, their widths etc.

3. Click OK to create the columns.

Drop Cap

This topic provides reference information about Drop Cap:

1. Click the paragraph that you want to begin with a "drop cap," a large dropped initial capital letter.

The paragraph must contain text.

2. On the Format menu, click Drop Cap.

3. Click Dropped or In Margin.

4. Select any other options you want.

Creating Bulleted and Numbered Lists

You can create lists in your document by having Word add bullet characters or numbering, together with hanging indents. Such automatic bullets and numbering are a part of the paragraph formatting. Unlike any bullet characters or numbers you might type in manually, you can't select or perform normal editing on automatic bullets or numbers.

Also, if you rearrange the paragraphs in a numbered list, Word renumbers the list for you. Following figure shows examples of the three kinds of lists you can create by adding automatic bullets or numbers.

Adding Bullets and

Adding Bullets and Numbering Using the Formatting Toolbar

The quickest way to have Word apply bullets or numbering to a list is to use the

Bullets button or the Numbering button on the Formatting toolbar, as follows:

1. Type the list. Press Enter at the end of each list item so that it's contained in a separate paragraph.

2. Select all the paragraphs in the list.

3. Click the Bullets button to apply bullets, or click the Numbering button to apply numbering.

If you apply numbering to a series of paragraphs and then delete or rearrange one or more of them, Word will update the numbering. If you place the insertion point at the end of a bulleted or numbered paragraph and press Enter, the new paragraph will also be bulleted or numbered. If, however, you press Enter twice without typing text, the new paragraphs will not be bulleted or numbered; this is a convenient way to stop adding bullets or numbering when you reach the end of your list.

You can remove bullets or numbering by selecting one or more paragraphs and clicking the Bullets button or the Numbering button again. You can also remove the bullet or number from a single paragraph by placing the insertion point immediately following the bullet or number and pressing Backspace.

To control the starting number for a list of automatically numbered paragraphs, you'll need to use the Bullets And Numbering dialog box, described below:

Adding Bullets and Numbering Using the Bullets

And Numbering Dialog Box

If you apply bullets or numbering using the Bullets And Numbering dialog box rather than using the Formatting toolbar, you have the following additional options:

You can choose any character or graphic image for the bullets in a bulleted list.

You can specify the starting number for a numbered list.

You can modify the appearance and position of the bullet characters or images, or the numbers.

You can create an outline-numbered list with a custom style. An outline-numbered list displays text in an attractive outline format, without using the Heading styles or Outline view.


The procedure is as follows:

1. Select all the paragraphs in the list.

2. Open the Bullets And Numbering dialog box by choosing Bullets And Numbering from the Format menu, or by right-clicking the selection and choosing Bullets And Numbering from the pop-up menu.

3. To apply bullets, click the Bulleted tab of the Bullets And Numbering dialog box (shown in the first figure below).

Note that applying a theme to your document will modify the bullets in bulleted lists throughout the document.

To apply numbering, click the Numbered tab:

To apply outline numbering, click the Outline Numbered tab:


How to create Tables?

How to work with Tables?


A Word table is a highly versatile tool for arranging text in rows and columns. A table is a collection of cells arranged in rows and columns, as shown in Figure. Word uses special formatting markers to identify a table and its parts in your document. Each cell can contain text, numbers, or graphics.

Creating a Table

There are several different ways to create a table in Word. You can use the

Insert Table button on the Standard toolbar

Insert Table command from the Table menu, or

Draw a table's outline and add rows or columns to it.

Using the Insert Table button Insert Table Button

1. Click the Insert Table button on the Standard toolbar .

2. In the table grid, drag right and down to select the number of columns and rows that you need. When you release the mouse button, the blank table is inserted.

3. In your blank table, click in each cell and enter the data. You can also move from cell to cell by using the Tab key or the arrow keys. (When you reach the bottom of the table, pressing Tab adds additional rows to the table.)

Using the Insert Table Dialog Box

When you create a table with the Insert Table dialog box, you select a particular number of rows and columns for your table and you can make formatting adjustments in advance. To create a table with the Insert Table dialog box:

1. Move the insertion point to the place where you want to begin the table.

2. Point to Insert on the Table menu and then choose Table, or display the Tables And Borders toolbar and click the Insert Table button there. You'll see the Insert Table dialog box, like the one shown below:

3. Enter the number of rows and columns in the Table Size area.

4. Choose a different AutoFit option, if necessary

5. Click the AutoFormat button to choose a table format, if necessary.

6. Click OK. Word creates the table.

Drawing Tables

Another way to insert a table is to interactively draw it, in much the same way that you draw lines or rectangles in a drawing program.

To draw a table, choose Draw Table from the Table menu or click the Tables And Borders button on the Standard toolbar.

When you choose Draw Table or click the Tables And Borders button, Word does the following:

If you're in Normal view, it switches to Print Layout view. (You must be in either Print Layout or Web Layout view to draw a table.)

It displays the Tables And Borders toolbar, which provides tools for working with tables, borders, and shading. This toolbar is shown below

It selects the Draw Table tool on the Tables And Borders toolbar, which converts the mouse pointer into a pencil.

The Tables And Borders Toolbar

The Tables And Borders toolbar is very handy when you work with tables. To display this toolbar, right-click in any toolbar and choose Tables And Borders from the toolbar menu, or click the Tables And Borders button on the Standard toolbar.

To draw a table, do the following:

1. Switch to Print Layout view if necessary.

2. Choose Draw Table from the Table menu or display the Tables And Borders toolbar and click the Draw Table button there. The mouse pointer becomes a pencil.

3. Point to the place where you want the upper-left corner of the table to appear—preferably the beginning of a blank line.

4. Click the mouse button and drag down and to the right until the table's outline is the size you want.

5. Release the mouse button. Word displays the table outline, like this:

6. Add row or column dividing lines by drawing them from one edge of the outline to the opposite edge.

7. Click the Draw Table tool in the Tables And Borders toolbar to turn it off when you're finished so you can begin entering text.

Working with Tables

Once your table has been created, you'll want to enter text into it. You enter text one cell at a time, and you can use most of the standard editing commands in Word. Because a table is a special area in a document, however, there are some different methods of navigating, selecting, and pasting information into tables.

Navigating in a Table

In a table, you enter text one cell at a time, so you'll want to move the insertion point to the correct cell before you insert text. There are three ways to move the insertion point from cell to cell:

Click inside a cell. Word moves the insertion point to the beginning of a cell, or to the place in the cell's text where you clicked.

Press the arrow keys on the keyboard.

Press the Tab key to move forward or Shift+Tab to move backward. However, if you press Tab when the insertion point is in the bottom right cell of the table, Word adds a new row.

Formatting Cells

You can format the text inside any cell by simply selecting it and applying a character or paragraph formatting option.

Aligning Text Inside Cells

You can use Word's standard paragraph alignment tools to align text horizontally in cells. However, Word also has table format options you can use to align text vertically and horizontally at the same time.

To align text in a cell, do the following:

Align button

Select the cell or cells.

Click the arrow next to the Align button on the Tables And Borders toolbar to display a palette of alignment selections.

Select an alignment option from the palette. Word aligns the text in the selected cells.

Changing the Text Direction

You can also change the direction of text in a cell with a button on the Tables And Borders toolbar. With Word you can rotate text inside cells in 90-degree increments.

To rotate text in a cell, row, or column, first do the following:

Click in the cell or select the row or column.

Click the Change Text Direction button on the Tables And Borders toolbar. The icon on the button shows the direction text will be in after you click it.

Adding Borders or Shading

The Tables And Borders toolbar contains its own Borders And Shading tools, or you can use the Borders And Shading command on the Format menu. You can add a border or shading to a selection of text inside a cell, to a whole cell, to a group of cells, or to the entire table.

To add a border or shading with the Tables And Borders toolbar, follow these steps:

1. Select the text or cells you want to shade or apply borders to.

2. Click the arrow next to the Borders or Shading tool in the toolbar. You'll see a palette of border or shading options.

3. Select the option you want.

4. The Borders palette shows how each option will add a border to the selected cell or cells, and the selection on the Borders button shows which border is currently selected.

Using the Borders And Shading Dialog Box

To add a border with the Borders And Shading dialog box, take the following steps:

1. Select a cell, text inside a cell, or a group of cells.

2. Choose Borders And Shading from the Format menu. Word opens the Borders And Shading dialog box, as shown below:

You can apply shading options the same way by selecting them on the Shading tab

Formatting Tables as a Whole

The best way to obtain a unified look for a table is to apply formatting to whole rows, columns, or the table itself. You can apply any of the character and paragraph formatting options mentioned previously, but there are others that affect the whole table at once.

Hiding or Showing Gridlines

Full cell and table borders are turned on by default when you create a table. However, even if you remove the borders with the Borders And Shading command, you'll still see gridlines that delineate cell and table borders so you can see the table's size and distinguish one cell from another.

If you have turned off all of a table's default borders and want to hide its gridlines as well, choose Hide Gridlines from the Table menu. (Hiding gridlines has no effect when you have the default table borders showing.)

Using Table AutoFormat

It's easy to format a table by selecting cells and using border and shading options on them, but Word has more than three dozen predesigned formats for tables in print and on Web pages, and you can apply them automatically with the AutoFormat feature. You can select an AutoFormat look when you first create a table with the Insert Table dialog box, or you can add a format later.

To apply a table AutoFormat to an existing table, start with the following steps:

1. Click anywhere in the table.

2. Choose Table AutoFormat from the Table menu. You'll see the Table AutoFormat dialog box as shown below:

Breaking a Table Between Pages

When a table spans more than one page, Word automatically breaks it just as it would any other text. However, you can also insert manual table breaks, and you can have Word duplicate the table's original column headings at the top of each new column or page when it breaks a table.

Inserting Breaks or Splitting a Table

You can insert a page break manually into a table in order to move part of it to the next printed page. You can also split a table when you want to divide it into two tables or when you want to insert text before a table that is at the beginning of a document.

To insert a page break in a table, click in the row that will be the top row on the new page and press Ctrl+Enter or choose Break from the Insert menu and double-click the Page Break option.

To split a table into two tables, click in the row that will be the top row of the second table and choose Split Table from the Table menu.

Repeating Table Headings on a New Page

When a table will span more than one page, you can have Word automatically repeat the original column headings. To do this, select the heading row or rows and choose Heading Rows Repeat from the Table menu. Word will then duplicate the headings in the next part of the table.

Rearranging Rows, Columns, or Cells

Changing Row Heights and Column Widths

One of the simplest ways to conserve space in tables is to change the widths of columns or the heights of rows.

Dragging a Border

The easiest way to resize a column or row is to drag one of its borders:

1. Point to a row or column border. The pointer changes to a double arrow.

2. Drag the border to the left or right (for a column) or up or down (for a row).

Using the Table Properties Dialog Box

To set a column or row to a specific width with a numerical value, use the Table Properties dialog box as shown below:

For example, to change a column width, follow these steps:

1. Click in the column you want to change.

2. Choose Table Properties from the Table menu and then click the Column tab in the Table Properties dialog box.

3. Change the unit of measurement if you like, and enter a different column width in the Specify Width box.

4. Click the Previous Column or Next Column button to view and change the widths of other columns.

5. Click OK.

The Row tab in the Table Properties dialog box works the same way. However, there are two additional options:

Allow Row To Break Across Pages tells Word to break a particularly tall row between two pages, rather than moving the entire row to the following page.

Repeat As Header Row At The Top Of Each Page is only available when you're working in the first row of a table. It works the same as the Heading Rows Repeat command on the Table menu, except it applies only to the top row in the table. If you want more than one row to repeat at the top of each page, use the Heading Rows Repeat command instead.

Adding a Row or Column

Another situation you will commonly encounter is running out of rows or columns in a table. To make a new row at the bottom of a table, move the insertion point to the end of the text in the last cell in the lower-right corner of the table and press Tab. Word will create a new row and move the insertion point into the left-hand cell in that row.

However, Word also gives you the flexibility to add rows or columns anywhere in a table. Here's how to add a row or column:

1. Place the insertion point in the column or row next to the place where you want new rows or columns added.

2. Choose Insert from the Table menu. You'll see the Insert submenu.

3. Choose an option to insert a row above or below the insertion point or to insert a column to the left or right of the insertion point. Word inserts the new row or column.

Deleting a Row or Column

There are two ways to delete a row or column:

Select the row or column and choose Rows or Columns from the Delete submenu on the Table menu. or

Click in any cell, choose Cells from the Delete submenu on the Table menu and then double-click the Delete Entire Row or Delete Entire Column button.

Inserting or Deleting a Cell

You can also use the Table menu to insert or delete individual cells or groups of cells. When you insert a cell, other cells to the right of it or below it move over or down to accommodate it. You can also choose to insert a whole new row or column when you insert a cell. To insert a cell, follow these steps:

1. Click in the cell where you want a new cell to be added (the one you click in will move over or down when you add the new cell).

2. Choose the Insert submenu on the Table menu and then choose Cells. You'll see a dialog box as shown below:

3. Use the option you want.

You can delete a cell in pretty much the same way. When you delete a cell or cells, the cells, rows, or columns around it will shift to take up the empty space. To delete cells, follow these steps:

1. Select the cell or cells you want to delete.

2. Choose Cells from the Delete submenu on the Table menu. You'll see the Delete Cells dialog box, which is similar to the Insert Cells dialog box.

3. Use the option you want.

Splitting or Merging Cells

When you need to create more or fewer cells without increasing or decreasing the overall size of the table, you can split one cell into multiple cells or merge two or more cells into one.

Splitting Cells

There are two ways to split cells. You can do it with a command or by using the Draw Table button on the Tables And Borders toolbar.

To split cells with a command, select the cell or cells and choose Split Cells from the Table menu. You'll see the Split Cells dialog box as shown below:

To split a cell with the Draw Table button, just click the Draw Table button and then draw a line across the cell to split it. You can draw several lines to create multiple cells where the single cell used to be.

Merging Cells

To merge split cells back together, select all of the cells you want to merge and then choose Merge Cells from the Table menu. The cells will become one cell again.

If you prefer, you can merge cells by deleting lines between cells with the Eraser:

Click the Eraser button on the Tables And Borders toolbar. The pointer turns into an eraser when you move it into the document.

Click the Eraser pointer's bottom corner on the line dividing two cells—it can be either a row or column divider. Word deletes the dividing line and merges the two cells into one.

You can also insert a table into a cell. These so-called nested tables.  To insert a table into a cell, just select a cell and then create a table with the Insert Table command or toolbar button.

Sorting Text in Tables

Another way to arrange rows in a table is to sort them. You can sort text in either ascending or descending order with buttons on the Tables And Borders toolbar, or you can use the Sort command from the Table menu to specify other options.

Sorting with a Click

To sort a table quickly, follow these two steps:

1. Click in the column on which you want Word to sort.

2. Click the Sort Ascending or Sort Descending button on the Tables And Borders toolbar.

Using the Sort Dialog Box

The Sort dialog box offers more sorting options. To sort with this command, follow these steps:

1. Click in any cell.

2. Choose Sort from the Table menu. You'll see the Sort dialog box as shown below:

3. Click an option at the bottom to specify whether your table has a header row at the top

4. Using the Sort By menu, select the column header name or the column number containing the text or data you want sorted.

5. Click the Ascending or Descending button to set the sort order for this column.

If your table contains several identical entries in the first column that will cause rows to be sorted together, use the Then By menus to choose additional columns in which to sort. However, Word always sorts whole rows whether it sorts in one column or more, so these additional sort criteria are only honored if the text or data in the primary sort column is identical.

6. Click OK to sort the rows.

Using Formulas in Tables

Some tables you create will have numbers in them, and you can insert formulas into tables to calculate those numbers. The options are far more limited than in Microsoft Excel, but they're fine for quick calculations.

For example, suppose you want Word to calculate totals in the bottom row of a table as shown below:

To add the formula from scratch to the empty cell at the bottom of the Sales Revenue column. Here's what to do:

1. Click in the empty cell at the bottom of the Sales Revenue column.

2. Choose Formula from the Table menu. You'll see the Formula dialog box as shown below.

3. Select and delete everything except the equal sign in the current formula.

4. Choose Average from the Paste Function menu. Word inserts the function in the Formula box. The insertion point is blinking between the two parentheses following the function name.

5. Type above.

6. Choose a number format from the Number Format menu, if you like.

7. Click OK. Word inserts a field containing the formula into the cell, and the field displays the average.


Using Mail Merge for Large Mailings

Mail Merge

Mail Merge is a particular feature used for bulk mailing.

Printing Form Letters

When you print a set of form letters, some text is the same on all the letters (for example, the letterhead, the body of the letter, and the closing), while some text varies from letter to letter (for instance, the recipient's name and address, and the name in the salutation). To print form letters, you create two documents: a main document and a data source document. The main document contains the text that is the same on all letters as well as instructions for inserting the variable text. The data source document stores the variable text. You then merge these two documents to generate the form letters.

The following are the steps for printing form letters:

1. Open the main document. Either you can create a new document (choose New from the File menu), or you can open a letter that you have already written (choose Open from the File menu).

2. Choose Mail Merge from the Tools menu to open the Mail Merge Helper dialog box as shown below:.

3. Click the Create button and from the menu that appears, choose Form Letters:

In the message box that Word next displays, click the Active Window button to use the document you opened in step 1 as the main document. (If you were to click the New Main Document button instead, Word would create another new document, based on the Normal template, to use as the main document.)

4. Before you enter or edit text in the main document, you need to create the data source document to hold the text that will vary in each document.

5. To create the data source document, click the Get Data button in the mail merge helper dialogue box and from the menu that appears, choose Create Data Source:

6. Word will open the Create Data Source dialog box as shown below, which allows you to assign a name to each data field of variable data:

The text in the data source document is divided into data records. Each data record contains all the variable text to be used for one form letter (for example, the letter to Emma Albani). Each data record is divided into data fields; a data field contains a single item of information (for example, the addressee's last name or the street address). (See Figure 14-4) You must assign a name to each data field so that you can reference it in the main document. Initially, the Create Data Source box contains a set of names for the typical data fields you might use in a letter—for example, FirstName for the addressee's first name, Address1 for the first line of the address, and so on.

7. Use the Create Data Source dialog box to remove any data fields you don't need and to add any new data fields that you need.

8. When you're done defining the data field names, click OK in the Create Data Source dialog box, enter a name and specify a location for the data source document in the Save As dialog box, and click the Save button. Word will then display the following message box:

9. Click the Edit Data Source button so that you can add the variable text to the data source document. (Clicking Edit Main Document would let you add text and merge information to the main document; you won't do this until later.)

Word will now open the Data Form dialog box:

Notice that this dialog box displays a box for each data field that you defined in previous steps.

10. Enter text into the data fields for the first data record. When you're done with the first data record, click the Add New button to define the second data record. Repeat this process to define all the data records, one for each person or company to whom you want to write a letter. When you have entered text into the last data record, click the OK button rather than clicking Add New. Word will return you to the main document that you opened in step 1.

11. Enter the letter text into the main document.

Because this document has been designated as a main mail merge document, when it is open, Word will display the Mail Merge toolbar:

12. To add a data field from the data source document, click the Insert Merge Field button on this toolbar, and choose the name of the data field from the menu that drops down. For example, to add the addressee's first name to the letter salutation, click Insert Merge Field, and choose FirstName. Word will insert a code for this data field, known as a merge field. You can recognize a merge field by the chevrons («, ») that surround it:


When you print the merge letters, the merge field on each letter will be replaced with the text from the data field in the corresponding merge record of the data source document. Note that the text will be formatted with the same character formatting that is assigned to the merge field. Therefore, to modify the formatting of the merged text, just select the merge field in the main document, and assign the desired character formatting (such as bold or italic). Below is a sample that shows the beginning of a letter containing merge fields.

«FirstName» «LastName»



«City»,«State»  «PostalCode»

13. To generate the form letters, click the Start Mail Merge button on the Mail Merge toolbar to open the Merge dialog box. Choose the options you want, and then click the Merge button.

If you chose Printer in the Merge To list of the Merge dialog box,

Word will immediately print the merged letters. If you choose New Document in the Merge To list, Word will insert all the form letters into a single new document. You can then view or edit the form letters within this document, and you can print the form letters by printing the document.

You can use the Merge dialog box to select specific records to merge, either by entering a range of records or by clicking the Query Options button and defining query or sort options.

If you want to merge all data records without changing any of the merge options, you can click either the Merge To New Document button or the Merge To Printer button on the Mail Merge toolbar. \

If you want to print the same set of form letters later, simply reopen the main mail merge document, and begin working with it. If you need to update the merge data before you print the letters, click the Edit Data Source button on the Mail Merge toolbar  and add, delete, or edit records as necessary in the Data Form dialog box.

You can also use Word's mail merge facility to print a set of envelopes. For example, if you have used mail merge to print form letters, you can also use it to print the envelopes for mailing the letters.

The following are the steps. (Many of these steps are the same as those for  creating form letters.

1. Open a new document, and choose Mail Merge from the Tools menu to display the Mail Merge Helper dialog box.

2. Click the Create button, and choose Envelopes from the menu that appears.

3. In the message box, click the Active Window button to use the document you opened in step 1 as the main document for the envelopes.

4. In the Mail Merge Helper dialog box, click the Get Data button, and then do one of the following:

To use a data source document that you have already created (for example, when you created form letters), choose Open Data Source, select the name of the document in the Open Data Source dialog box, and click the Open button. In the message box, click the Set Up Main Document button. Word will then open the Envelope Options dialog box.

To create a new data source document, choose Create Data Source. In the Create Data Source dialog box, define names for the required data fields, and click OK. In the Save As dialog box, enter a name for the data source document, click the Save button, and in the message box that Word displays, click the Edit Data Source button. Enter all the data records into the Data Form dialog box, and click OK. Word will return you to the main document you opened in step 1. You should now click the Mail Merge Helper button on the Mail Merge toolbar, and in the Mail Merge Helper dialog box, click the Setup button in the Main Document area. Word will then open the Envelope Options dialog box.

If you have entered names and addresses into an Outlook Address Book, a Personal Address Book, or a Schedule+ Contacts list, you can choose Use Address Book to use the addresses that it contains as your data source. In the Use Address Book dialog box, choose the particular address book you want to use, and click OK. Then, in the message box, click the Set Up Main Document button to have Word open the Envelope Options dialog box.

5. In the Envelope Options dialog box, make any required adjustments to the envelope or printing options. When you click OK, Word will display the Envelope Address dialog box.

6. Enter the delivery address into the Sample Envelope Address box in the Envelope Address dialog box. To insert a merge field, click the Insert Merge Field button, and choose the name of the merge field from the menu that appears. In addition to the merge fields, you'll probably need to add spaces, commas, or other characters. Figure shows a completed address. When you're done, click OK; Word will return you to the Mail Merge Helper dialog box.

7. In the Mail Merge Helper dialog box, click the Edit button in the Main Document area, and choose the name of the main document you created.

Word will now display the main document containing the merge fields for your envelope. Notice that Word inserts the merge fields as you arranged them in the Envelope Address dialog box. Also, it inserts your personal mailing address in the return address position (if you have defined one), and it modifies the page setup (the margins, paper size, paper source, and so on) for printing envelopes. (Recall that you define a personal address by choosing Options from the Tools menu, clicking the User Information tab, and entering the address into the Mailing Address box.)

If necessary, edit the return or delivery address in the main document. For example, if you're using preprinted envelopes, you'll need to delete the return address. You can use the Mail Merge toolbar as described previously.

8. To generate the envelopes, click the Start Mail Merge button on the Mail Merge toolbar to open the Merge dialog box. Choose the options you want, and then click the Merge button. If you want to merge all data records without changing any of the merge options, you can simply click either the Merge To New Document button or the Merge To Printer button on the Mail Merge toolbar.

Printing Sets of Mailing Labels

Printing sets of labels using Word's mail merge feature is similar to printing sets of envelopes. You can print mailing labels (perhaps to mail a set of form letters you have printed), or you can print other types of labels, such as name tags or disk labels.


Changing the page settings of a word document.

Using Print Preview

Printing a word document

Page Setup

Page setup is normally used to change the page settings related to your documents.

In margins tab you can change the default margin of the page. Here we have an additional margin called gutter margin, used for binding purposes.

In paper size tab we can change the size of the paper. The default paper size is 8.5’’ by 11’’. In this tab we can also set the page orientation that is portrait or landscape.

Similarly the paper source and layout tabs are related to the printer paper source trays and the layout of the document respectively.

Previewing Documents

Print Preview shows your document's pages just as they will appear when they are printed. Choose Print Preview from the File menu to display this view.

The main purpose of Print Preview is to check your document's formatting before you print. You can set the magnification in this mode, and you can use the window scroll bars or keyboard navigation keys to navigate in the window. You can also use the Print Preview mode to adjust the page margins.

Zooming to Actual Size

In the Print Preview mode, the zoom pointer replaces the standard pointer. When you want to look more closely at text or formatting, click in an area of the reduced document to magnify it to actual size. Click again and the document will be reduced again.

Using the Print Preview Toolbar

When you display Print Preview mode, the standard toolbars in the document window are replaced with the Print Preview toolbar:

The Print button prints the document without displaying the Print dialog box.

The Magnifier button toggles the mouse pointer between the magnifier and the normal pointer. The Magnifier button is on by default, so the mouse pointer is a magnifier. When you turn the Magnifier button off, the pointer is an I-beam, and you can select or edit text in the document.

The One Page button tells Word to display one page at a time in Preview mode. Clicking the Multiple Pages button opens a palette where you can choose the number of pages you want to display on the screen.

The Zoom menu works just like the Zoom menu in the Standard toolbar, except that it includes other options to zoom by the amount of the page you want to see, like this:

The View Ruler button displays horizontal and vertical rulers at the sides of the document. When these rulers are visible, you can use them to set the page margins or indents, just as you can in Print Layout view. Hiding the rulers leaves a little more screen space for the document.When the last page of your document contains only one or two lines of text, you can use the Shrink To Fit button to remove this final page. Shrink to Fit will automatically reduce the size of the text to fit entirely on the previous pages. Choose another zoom setting to cancel the shrinkage.

The Full Screen button presents the previewed document at maximum size on your screen. Unlike the Full Screen mode (covered earlier in this chapter), you can still see the Print Preview toolbar in Full Screen mode when you use this button.

The Close button cancels Print Preview mode, closes the Print

Preview toolbar, and returns you to the previous document view.

The Context-Sensitive Help button works like the What's This? command on the Help menu. When you click this button, the pointer turns into a question mark, and you can then click any feature of the Preview screen to get a description of it.

Printing Documents

Once your document looks the way you want, you're ready to print it. To print a document, follow these steps:

Choose Print from the File menu or press Ctrl+P. You'll see the Print dialog box, as shown in Figure.

Now let's look at the options you can choose for printing the current document.

Option Name Description

Name list Choose an alternate printer if one is available.

Properties button Displays printer properties.

Print To File Print the formatted document to a file on your disk.

Page Range Choose All to print the entire document, or enter numeric ranges to print certain pages.

Copies Enter the number of copies to be printed.

Collate Collate each document when printing multiple copies (one complete document copy at a time) or clear to print copies a page at a time (copies of page 1, copies of page 2, etc.).

Print What Select type of data to print from the document— document properties, styles, reviewer comments, or other data.

Print Print only Even or Odd pages from the document or All pages.

Pages Per Sheet Print multiple copies of the document on one sheet of paper, such as nametags or business cards.

Scale To Paper Size Automatically zoom the document's contents to fit on various sizes of paper.

Options Display more advanced printing options.






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